At a time when most of the world's people were nomadic hunter-gatherers, Çatalhöyük was a bustling town of as many as 10,000 people.
Some sites (Stonehenge, New Grange) show a definite interest in simple solar observations.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
While the phrase "pre-Columbian era" literally refers only to the time preceding Christopher Columbus's voyages of 1492, in practice the phrase is usually used to denote the entire history of indigenous Americas cultures until those cultures were vanquished, diminished, or extensively altered by Europeans, even if this happened decades or centuries after Columbus's first landing.
Other civilizations were contemporary with the colonial period and were described in European historical accounts of the time.
A few, such as the Maya civilization, had their own written records.